1. Electricity (AC & DC)
With alternating current, the direction electricity flows throughout the circuit is constantly reversing. You may even say that it is an alternating direction. The rate of reversal is measured in Hertz, which is the number of reversals per second. So, when they say that the US power supply is 60 Hz, what they mean is that it is reversing 120 times per second (twice per cycle). With Direct Current, electricity flows in one direction between power and ground. In this arrangement, there is always a positive source of voltage and a ground (0V) source of voltage. You can test this by reading a battery with a multimeter.
2. Circuits (Open & Closed)
A circuit is a complete and closed path through which electric current can flow. In other words, a closed-circuit would allow the flow of electricity between power and ground. An open circuit would break the flow of electricity between power and ground.
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The electrical resistance of a circuit component or device is defined as the ratio of the voltage applied to the electric current which flows through it. If the resistance is constant over a considerable range of voltage, then Ohm's law, I = V/R, can be used to predict the behaviour of the material. Although the definition above involves DC current and voltage, the same definition holds for the AC application of resistors.
4. Connection (Series vs. Parallel)
There are two different ways in which you can wire things together called series and parallel. When things are wired in series, things are wired one after another, such that electricity has to pass through one thing, then the next thing, then the next, and so on. When things are wired in parallel, they are wired side by side, such that electricity passes through all of them at the same time, from one common point to another common point.
Computer Hardware and electronics in general.
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